What factors affect CNC machining accuracy

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What factors affect CNC machining accuracy

CNC machining tools are mainly composed of two parts: CNC component system and machine tool processing system. In the actual processing and production process, there are five main factors that affect the processing accuracy.

1 The machine tool heats up

In the process of operation, the CNC machine tool itself will generate a certain amount of heat, such as motor operation, component friction and other factors, which will cause the temperature of the machine tool to continue to rise, causing adverse effects on components and structural systems due to thermal effects, such as tool shift in the machine tool. , Parts wear, components are thermally expanded, lines are burned, etc., resulting in reduced machining accuracy of parts. In addition, most of the machine tools are installed in non-ventilated places, and external environmental conditions such as limited heat dissipation conditions will also cause the temperature to rise. This will increase the burden of machine tool operation, reduce the accuracy of parts processing, and may cause mechanical failures in severe cases, directly affecting the efficiency and quality of CNC processing.

2 The error and wear of the tool itself

The tool in the machine tool is also one of the machining parts. In its own production and processing process, there are geometric errors that affect the accuracy due to the limitation of the machining conditions. In the process of tool installation, human operation will also affect the machining accuracy. In the process of use, due to the long-term contact between the tool and the workpiece to be processed, and the deformation caused by friction and high temperature, the tool will also be worn to varying degrees. Of course, when the wear accumulates to a certain extent, it will also have a significant impact on the CNC machining accuracy.

3 machining position error

The parts of CNC machine tools all have basic error requirements such as surface, shape, radian, and relative relationship. CNC machining must complete the design requirements of the parts and meet the performance and quality requirements of processing. In the process of machine tool processing, due to the influence of various factors such as transmission parts, rotary shafts, and frictional forces of parts, the accuracy of parts appearance, size, and relative relationship is deviated, which reduces the accuracy of parts processing. For example, during the machining process of the machine tool, the swing angle of the machining axis will be wrong, which will lead to the deformation of the part shape, the reduction of the precision, and even lead to the scrap of the parts in batches, which will bring great economic losses to the enterprise.

4 Processing system error

The machine tool processing system of CNC machine tools is the part that directly implements parts processing. It is a whole that is composed of multiple subsystems and sub-components in a certain way and operates together. The operation of each component will affect the machining accuracy of the entire processing system. make an impact. Therefore, the system error is constantly generated by multiple components in the process of installation and operation, and the error of the processing system can only be minimized by means of technological progress and improvement of construction progress.

5 Deformation error

CNC machine tools will be affected by external forces during long-term processing and use, such as clamping force, gravity, friction, etc., which will cause deformation, loosening, elastic deformation, displacement and other deformation phenomena of the machining system of the machine tool, resulting in the production accuracy of the machine tool. and reduced productivity. Under the influence of external force, the machine tool will not only reduce the accuracy of production and processing, but also cause damage to the machine tool in severe cases, affecting the service life. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the research on the influence factors of external force on CNC machine tools to reduce the influence on the machine tools.

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